Stem cell transplantation is also called a bone marrow transplant. The procedure is one where the replacement of unhealthy cells that are responsible for the formation of blood is replaced with healthy equivalents.
Through stem cell transplantation, doctors employ ration therapy as well as chemotherapy in order to reduce the chances of getting blood cancer. Restoration of blood cells that are normal is also produced in this process.
There are plenty of people that are looking to make this procedure as inexpensive and accessible as possible.
To put it simply, in a stem cell transplantation revolves around how the stem cells produce blood cells such as the white and red cells, lymphocyte and platelets. These stem cells are present in the cord blood as well as the marrow and peripheral blood.
In a chemo or radiation therapy session, rays are responsible for the elimination of a set number of the patient’s stem cells thereby reducing the capacity of the cells to produce blood and immune cells.
After receiving the therapy, which will be of high dosage, the patient is then given the stem cell transplant. The patient’s blood is then transfused with the stem cells of the donor which then enters the marrow through the bloodstream.
Direct matches of the stem cell type can be found easily if the patient has a brother or a sister. They become the donor if the stem cells are found suitable for transplantation. The stem cells of donors that aren’t the patient’s brother or sister can also be used if they are of the same type.
The introduction of new stem cells encourages the production of red and white cells, platelets and also immune cells. Since the immune cells aren’t of the same type as that of the patient’s, there’s a better chance of the immune cells to recognize as well as kill the cancer cells present.
Stem cells are of three types, namely autologous, allogenic and reduced-intensity.
Autologous: In an autologous stem cell transplant, the stem cells present in your own body is used.
Allogenic: The stems cells present in an external donor is used.
Reduced-intensity: Although reduced-intensity uses a donor, which is quite similar to allogeneic, the intensity of the chemotherapy session is lessened significantly.
This type is called syngeneic transplantation. The reason why it is rare is due to the fact that it is only used on twins that are identical in both genetic makeup as well as tissue type.